Types of Industrial Valves: Construction, Working, and Usage

Valve types

Multiple industries function differently, and many tend to have a significant dependency on valves.

There are many kinds of valves used in different industries, and each valve serves the exclusive purpose of being installed.

If you look forward to understanding the different kinds of industrial valves and their types in detail, you are at the right place.

In this article, you will learn a lot of new things about the different types of valves, along with their construction, working, and usage.

So, let’s read the article below and gain an understanding of industrial valves.

Overview of Industrial Valves

Valves cater to various applications in any industry that involve controlling the flow of gas or liquids and even slurries.

Industrial valves can be manufactured with multiple materials like plastics, and metals and have different sizes, purposes, and functions.

According to the requirement of the application, temperature, pressure, and kind of material passed through the valve, it is chosen among the different available options.

Definition of Industrial Valves

Industrial valves are devices that mechanically operate and carry out the task of creating a passage, blocking the path, or partially allowing a passage to fluids and gasses flowing in a pipeline.

Function of Industrial Valves

There are multiple functions of industrial valves, which include regulating the flow of liquid or gas; an industrial valve directs, opens, closes, and controls the flow of liquid and gas.

When the flow of liquid or gas is required to stop, the valve may be used to shut that and when liquid or gas is required to pass, the valve is opened.

If a controlled or minimal amount of fluid is destined to pass through the opening, valves could also regulate this.

Different valves have different purposes, and every kind has a lot of characteristics that make it easier to put these to purpose.

Importance of Industrial Valves in Industrial Processes

Valves play a vital role in the industry and add a lot of ease to the mechanical processes to control gas or liquid flow.

Various industries use pipelines for their manufacturing, which require valves to be installed.

The function of valves is to allow, stop or throttle the flow of gas and liquid, and multiple industries use various fluids, gasses, and slurries to carry out their processes.

In the absence of valves, the flow of liquid or gas cannot be controlled, whereas valves make it possible to control and direct the flow of the material as per the requirement.

Industries like food and beverage, oil and gas, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, and many more depend on industrial valves.

Types of Industrial Valves

Industries carry out many processes, and each function needs a different kind of valve to control the material; some of the commonly used valves in the sectors are discussed below:

1. Ball Valves

The ball valve is one of the most straightforward valves to use and doesn’t require any added maintenance; it offers immediate shutting off and opening but does not support throttle.

● Construction

A ball valve is joined into two pieces; one has the ball and contains the one-end connection.

The other piece has the rest of the internal components and is connected with the first part. This kind of valve contains components, including a ball-shaped disc, seat, stem, and a handle on the top.

● Working

The ball contains the hole; when the valve handle is rotated, the ball’s hole comes in line with the flow and allows the material to pass.

When it is again rotated to 90 degrees, it comes perpendicular to the flow and blocks the passage.

● Applications

The ball valve is suitable for use where complete shutting off is needed, and it is not suitable for the throttle purpose.

It is suitable for high and low pressure, but in cases where the fluids or gasses have high pressure, the metal seats of the valves must be used to handle corrosive materials.

2. Butterfly Valves

The butterfly valve is suitable for use in areas with less space, and the process requires open, close, and throttle functions.

● Construction

The components of this valve contain a stem, seat, valve body, shaft, and shaft bearings, and the main component is the disc that acts as a gate and allows the flow to pass or stop.

The shaft connects the valve’s stem to the actuator, and this system’s movement allows the disc to move as well.

● Working

To open or close the valve, the actuator has to be turned; once it is turned at 90 degrees, the valve opens and then again turned at 90 degrees valve shuts.

There are three different ways this valve can be operated: manual, semi-automatic, or fully automatic.

In the case of operating it manually, the valve can be opened and closed with human intervention; however, in the case of automatic and semi-automatic, the valve uses electric power.

● Applications

These valves are suitable for the flow of material that needs isolation and hence is common for the water flow and flow; also, the pipes with bigger diameters usually comprise butterfly valves.

Materials, like liquid, gas, and even slurries, can be passed through the butterfly valves either entirely or in a controlled way.

3. Gate Valves

Gate valve comes with a straightforward design and is easy to use; however, it is not suitable for highly accurate flows but does support bi-directional flows.

● Construction

Three main components make up the gate valve: the bonnet, trim, and body of the valve.

The valve’s body is attached to the piping through screws or welding, and the moving parts are contained in the bonnet, which is connected to the body.

The valve’s trim has a stem, seat, disc, and gate; the parts are joined with the body through bolts to allow cleaning.

● Working

A threaded stem is attached to the actuator that allows the movement of the valve to open or close it.

As the stem moves, the gate, which may be either rectangular or wedge-shaped, moves and allows the flow of the material to pass through or stop; this valve allows the wedge to either move upwards or downwards.

● Applications

The gate valves are suitable for use in neutral liquids or wastewater applications.

Also, the gasses may flow through these valves if they range between -200 C to 700 C.

4. Globe Valves

Globe valves are used in industries like food and beverage and process plants; these are leak-proof valves and offer opening, closing, and flow regulation.

● Construction

A Globe valve has various components like a stem, actuator, disc, body, bonnet, and seat; this kind of valve has a rising stem, and the seats lie parallel in a plane.

The stems are attached to the outer screw that allows the disc to move upwards or downwards when the valve is rotated.

● Working

Globe valves are suitable for throttling, and as the handwheel is rotated, the valve’s disc moves upwards, allowing the valve to open and let the material pass through.

Globe valves are manual and automatic; manual ones use a handwheel, and automatic ones use sliding shafts or an actuator.

● Applications

Low drains and high point vents are where the globe valves are used, and they are suitable for the environment where the leakage is a problem; cooling water systems requiring regulated flow allow for a globe valve.

5. Diaphragm Valves

Diaphragm valves are used for bubble-tight closures and even support accurate flow in a regulated way; they are suitable for thick liquids like slurries, gas, and other fluids.

● Construction

The making of diaphragm valves may be either metal, wood, or plastic and comprises components that include a compressor, valve stem, diaphragm, and valve body.

This valve can be in two different types that comprise either a stem that has a threaded layout or a piston one and has the actuator as well.

● Working

Diaphragm valves work on the linear motion mechanism and consist of a diaphragm that moves up and down to allow the flow of liquid or block it.

When the diaphragm flexes down, the valve seals the seat and stops the flow of the liquid.

● Application

The diaphragm valves are used in many industries as they can handle various kinds of materials; in fact, the fluid that has particles can also be controlled by this valve.

Hence it is popular in pharmaceuticals, food and beverage, cement, paper, and many other industries.

6. Check Valves

Check valves allow material flow in one direction only and are hence called non-return valves.

● Construction

Check valves comprise two openings, one allows the material to enter the valve from the pipeline, and the other allows the material to exit the valve.

The components of a check valve comprise a cover, disc, body, and seat, and this valve offers a one-way passage.

● Working

The check valve is an automated kind of valve that, once rotated with the handle, stops or starts the flow.

However, this is a non-return valve so the flow only moves in one direction and doesn’t go back again in the pipeline.

● Application

Pumps and compressors used in chemical plants and steam boilers mostly use check valves to restrict the backflow of the material in the pipeline.

7. Needle Valves

The needle valve is known for accurately controlling the flow traveling through it and is used for industries that need such exact regulation.

● Construction

The needle valves comprise the components, which include the body, stem, seat, and stem tip that acts as a needle and have fine threads that allow accuracy in the flow.

● Working

As the valve handle is rotated either manually or in an automated setup, the needle moves upwards and so does the plunger allowing liquid or gas to pass.

When the passage is to be blocked, the valve handle is rotated in the opposite direction, and this allows for the plunger to go back to its original place and stop the flow.

● Application

Needle valves are used to control the flow of material very precisely, and these are commonly used in pipe systems that comprise distribution points and calibration applications.

8. Plug Valves

The valve family to which the plug valve belongs is the quarter-turn family, and it allows for a very tight shutting of the valve,

● Construction

The plug valve comprises a seat, bonnet, and stem, and a plug is an essential component; the plug is a cylindrically designed part that moves inside and outside to allow or restrict the flow of material.

● Working

There is a hollow passage in the valve body where the plug rests; when the valve is rotated, the plug moves upwards and allows the flow to pass; when it is displaced back again, the plug gets into the hollow space resisting the flow.

● Applications

Plug valves are suitable for sewage systems and allow fair suitability for applications where corrosive and high-temperature-based materials are passed as they allow a bubble-tight shut-off.

9. Safety Relief Valves

The safety relief valve is also known as the pressure relief valve used to control the pressure inside the pipeline.

● Construction

The safety relief valves have components, including the bonnet, body, spring, moveable disc, and an adjusting ring.

The spring is a compression spring that allows the closure or opening of the valve with pressure on the required side.

● Working

The safety relief valve controls the pressure of the fluid inside the pipeline; when the pressure in the pipeline increases, the force exerted by this valve, with the help of a compressible spring, allows it to stay inside.

Keeping the pressure under-controlled it acts as a safety concern in the industry because the pressure being built up is released in this valve.

● Application

The pressure relief valve is commonly used in applications that involve pressure building up in the pipes like the oil and gas sector, power generation, and boiler equipment.

10. Solenoid Valves

Solenoid valves work under electric power and perform their function when the valve attains power.

● Construction

The essential components of the solenoid valve are the copper coil installed within the valve and a plunger also present inside the coil.

The valve stem inside the valve body is connected to the coil, allowing the valve to open and shut when needed.

● Working

When the electric current passes through the valve it allows the plunger to move upwards and this opens the passage of the material to flow through the valve.

As soon as the electric current stops flowing through the valve, the plunger starts to move downwards, letting the valve shut once again.

 

● Application

This valve is mainly used in airlines, refrigerants, and water lines to let the material flow only when the power is supplied.

 

Selection Criteria for Industrial Valves

A.      Flow Rate

The flow rate of every liquid is different depending on the industrial application, and when the valve selection is made, keeping the flow rate in mind is very important.

Some valves are designed to handle minimum flow rate and some maximum, whereas some are normal, so flow rate must be assessed when choosing a valve type.

B.      Pressure and Temperature Requirements

The pressure and temperature of the material play a significant role in selecting the valve; some valves cannot handle too much pressure or temperature and need favorable environments to function.

Therefore, if the pressure and temperature are high in the pipelines, opting for metal valves that are entirely bubble tight is suggested.

C.      Materials of Construction

Valves are usually made from two kinds of material, either plastic or metals. The plastic ones are suitable for environments that are not too corrosive, and rusting must be avoided using these.

However, metal valves are usually opted for in environments where corrosive chemicals are used.

D.     Valve Type Compatibility with Process Requirements

The valve chosen must be compatible with the environment it will be subjected to; for instance, the solenoid valve is suitable for the refrigerant and safety relief valve for environments where the fluid pressure is high and needs control.

E.      Automation and Control Requirements

Some valves are manual and some are automatic, depending upon the usage requirement it is essential to assess whether automated valves are required or manual ones.

The automated valves work using electric power and may function independently, so industries that need such a mechanism may implement them.

F. Maintenance and Repair Considerations

Most valves, like ball and butterfly, are simple and easy to maintain.

However, some valves need to be more straightforward in construction and maintenance.

Therefore, keeping in mind the maintenance and repair requirement of the valve, you must choose one of your industries that frequently requires care and whether it is possible according to the nature of your industry.

The Importance of Choosing the Right Valve for Your Industrial Process

The selection of the right valve is significant to achieve the purpose of the installation of a valve; similarly, there is no room for compromise in this context.

If you want a complete shut-off and choose a valve that allows accurate regulation, there is no point in having it in the first place because you won’t get the bubble-tight fitting that might be needed.

Moreover, if you need to direct the flow in one direction and use a ball valve instead of the non-return valve, the purpose of installing the valve would go useless, and even you won’t be able to achieve the desired function.

Hence, you must choose the suitable valve regarding the material used in the making, the material passing through it, and the purposes needed to accomplish it.

Conclusion

Once you have decided which valve you require the most important thing is choosing the right supplier, there must not be a compromise on the quality of the valve as it is a long-term installation.

Hence, you can contact us at INOXCN, as we offer a wide range of valves for industrial applications in bulk at a very reasonable price.

We will guide you regarding the valve selection too, and you will definitely find dealing with us great, so get in touch today!

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